History

Writers’ route through Porto ( Camilo Castelo Branco )
1 October, 2020 / , ,

Although, he was born in Lisbon (1825) the illegitimate son of an aristocrat with his maid, at the age of 5 he came to live to the north – Vila Real, a mother orphan. At just 16 years old he married, and in 1843, 2 years later, he was a father. That same year he came to Porto to live alone, to Rua Escura, in the historic and picturesque district of the cathedral, to study medicine. Later he lived in the Hotel Paris, on Rua da Fábrica.

He was an elegant man, he was a renowned journalist and writer. In 1850, he enrolled at the Porto Seminary, where he studied theology and founded 2 religious newspapers.

Camilo’s life in Porto was intense, controversial and bohemian and caused some scandals of a loving nature. He was celebrated for his passion for Ana Plácido and consequent imprisonment in the jail of Relação. From these events, his most famous work “The Love of Perdition” was born, which was immortalized by a statue of the two, which can be seen next to the jail where both were imprisoned.

In 1868, Camilo returned to Porto to live on Rua de Santa Catarina and Rua de S. Lázaro, after marrying Ana Plácido and with her founded and directed the city’s Gazeta Literária.

The 1980s were very turbulent because they already saw very badly and maintained controversial relations with various masters of society. He was physically threatened several times and bought a revolver to defend himself. Ironically 7 years later he would use it to commit suicide after realizing that his blindness had no cure.
Camilo was buried in the cemetery of Lapa.

Until today, manuscripts of correspondence between Camilo, Ana Plácido and Freitas Fortuna and numerous Camillian objects are found in the Order of Lapa, such as the revolver with which he committed suicide, a silver snuff box, with the last note he used, the spyglass , the quill and the quill pen that served him recently, a book by Droz that Camilo began to translate in Cadeia da Relação, a conch that served Camilo as paperweights and his favorite inkwell.

The iron sculptures of the Palace gardens
1 October, 2020 / ,

In the second half of the 19th century, Europe was teeming with technological progress resulting from the various transformations that occurred during the so-called ‘Industrial Revolution’.

There are some architectural and structural examples in Porto from that time and also some of which unfortunately only have a few memories left.

This is the case of the Palácio de Cristal, which received its name because it was inspired by the Crystal Palace in everything similar, except in size, which had been built in London for the same purpose, that is, the installation of a universal public exhibition.

But if iron was now used as a raw material in large industrial foundries combined with brilliant engineering and architecture works, it was also beginning to see its potential applied to sculpture. It allowed the same type of detail and finishing of more noble metals, but with greater ease and economy of production, as well as the possibility of series production of pieces created by great masters.

Thus, it is common to have public works in landscaped spaces that by that time were created in European cities, sculpture works in cast iron.
The gardens of the Crystal Palace, unlike the building, have been preserved in their original design and their Sculptures as well. If in the case of the Building and in the structural and technological aspects the origins were English, the cultural and aesthetic fields in Porto and Europe were still dominated by French influences, more precisely Parisians.

Upon entering the main gate, we find the garden that preceded the main facade of the Palace and two fountains adorned with sculptural elements and four figures that represent the Seasons of the Year. It is possible to understand its origins because the foundries where they were produced and in in some cases the author or author of the original modeling.

It is curious to observe, according to a study published by Paula Torres Peixoto in the Revista de Arquitectura Lusitana, that since the Works that represent the Seasons come from different origins, we actually have 3 and not the 4 seasons represented, since the one that it is in its base identified with being autumn, it is actually summer that appears twice.

Following Avenida das Tílias, we will pass through the Concha Acústica and the commonly known as “Fonte dos Cavalinhos”, both with excellent sculptural works in cast iron.

For all this and for all the surrounding space, the “Palace” is and will always be one of the most beloved places in the City.

King Carlos Alberto Chapel
22 September, 2020 / , , ,

Carlos Alberto of Sardinia was born in Turin, Italy, in 1798. He was King of Sardinia from 1831 and was one of the fathers of the unification of Italy, a country that was divided into several political entities, all more or less controlled by the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Carlos Alberto wanted to unify all Italy under his scepter, but he had to take refuge in Porto in 1849, after being defeated by the Austrians in the Battle of Novara.

Upon arrival, the dethroned monarch stayed at the Hospedaria do Peixe, operating in the majestic Palace of the Viscounts of Balsemão, in the then Praça dos Ferradores, today Praça Carlos Alberto. There he stayed, until he was offered a place to live. He later moved to Quinta da Macieirinha, where today the Solar do Vinho do Porto and the Romantic Museum are located. There he died.

His body was transferred to the Pantheon of Savoy, in Italy, but the half-sister had a chapel built on the grounds of the farm currently incorporated in the gardens of the Crystal Palace.

Writers’ route through Porto ( Júlio Dinis )
21 September, 2020 / , ,

Júlio Dinis (1839-1871), was born and baptized in Porto, in the parish of S. Nicolau.

He studied in Miragaia where he wrote the first literary texts, and studied medicine at the University of Porto. In 1852 and 1853, he lived in the village of Noêda, in the parish of Campanhã. In 1874 the writer moved in with his cousin’s family to Rua de Costa Cabral, in the parish of Paranhos, where he would later die of tuberculosis – he was 32 years old.

When he attended the first year of the Polytechnic Academy, he became acquainted and maintained an intimate friendship with the poet Soares de Passos, and from this circumstance he intensified his love of beautiful letters. He also participated in theater groups, and collaborated with Jornal do Porto.

In his books “Os Fidalgos da Casa Mourisca”, “A Morgadinha dos Canaviais” and “Uma Família Inglesa” we can find many references to the city where he was born, lived and died.

A sculptural ensemble, with a female figure who places a wreath near the poet’s bust, in low relief. He was buried in the cemetery of Cedofeita, together with his brother.

Ricardo Jorge – Precursor of the National Health System
21 September, 2020 / , ,

Ricardo de Almeida Jorge was born in Porto, on May 9, 1858.
He attended the Porto Medical-Surgical School between 1874 and 1879, finishing his medical course at the age of 21, with a dissertation “The nervousness in the past” Starting his professional life at the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery of Porto. In 1880, he taught Anatomy, Histology and Experimental Physiology at the same Faculty and competed for the position of substitute professor in the Surgery Department of the same school. He elaborates a work on Driving Locations in the Brain, at a time when neurology was taking its first steps. Not delaying clinical practice, he travels abroad several times, attending the lessons of the neurologist Charcot.
Meanwhile returning to Porto, he published several articles in scientific journals and set up the first microscopy and physiology laboratory in Porto.
As neurology was his first interest, he left a monumental work, covering diverse subjects, focusing most of his legacy on the specialties of Hygiene and Epidemiology. His style goes beyond a man of science, as we can see in a comment by Camilo Castelo Branco of whom he was a friend “The style of Ricardo Jorge dismay everything that is known in parliamentary oratory, academic dialectics, civic eloquence of clubs and even in pulpit oratory … ”, in the work Serões de S. Miguel de Seide.
The studies carried out on hydrotherapy and Ricardo Jorge’s interest in thermalism and hydrology (carrying out some experiments on the effects of alkaline fluorides and in thermal waters) follow, in 1888, the exploration contract for fifty years, of Caldas do Gerês , where he held the position of clinical director between 1889 and 1892. Companhia das Caldas do Gerês, with no vocation for business activity, went bankrupt in 1893.initiative.
He received the Armando Basto (1954), António Carneiro (1955), Henrique Pousão (1957) awards. He was also distinguished with the Medal of Cultural Merit of the Chamber of Cerveira (1982) and with the gold medals of the Chambers of Porto, in 1988, and of Gaia, in 2002. He is represented in public and private collections, among which: Museum do Chiado; Machado de Castro Museum among others. In 2006 he presented an anthological exhibition of his work at Casa-Museu Teixeira Lopes, in Vila Nova de Gaia
On June 10, 2006, he was made Grand Officer of the Order of Merit.
Several debates about the installation of cemeteries in Porto, led Ricardo Jorge to give a series of conferences (1884), in a contesting attitude to what the health authorities thought about social hygiene, contributing to a great debate. It was a fundamental moment in the evolutionary process of public health in Portugal.
At the invitation of the Porto City Council, he was part of a study on the health conditions of the city, preparing a report published in 1988. He was appointed Porto’s municipal doctor in 1891, receiving another invitation in 1892 to administer the Municipal Health Services. and Hygiene of Porto and the Municipal Laboratory of Bacteriology.
In 1895 he was appointed Professor of the Chair of Hygiene and Legal Medicine at the Medical-Surgical School of Porto.
The studies of Ricardo Jorge, Arantes Pereira and the Count of Samodães, helped to influence Queen D. Amélia in the creation of the National Assistance to Tuberculosis and the construction of sanatoriums for the sick.
In 1899 Porto was hit by an outbreak of bubonic plague (in theory extinct in the West since 1700). Ricardo Jorge makes the diagnosis reporting to the competent authorities the outbreak of the epidemic. International aid was immediately requested and two hundred tubes of “Yersin” serum were ordered from the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Although several people were vaccinated by Dr. Calmette, among whom Ricardo Jorge’s own children, knowing this very well the conditions for the development of the plague, put in place strict sanitary measures and elimination of the disease-transmitting agents such as rats and fleas (for each large rat delivered to a police station, 20 reis were paid for each small 10), in addition to preventive measures for the eradication of the pest (isolation of patients and disinfection of houses where pathological cases were found)
The Health Council enacted a sanitary cordon around the city, defended by the army, however, the economic damage resulting from isolation and the instigation by some political groups led to a population revolt, resulting in some violent episodes.
Although protected by the authorities and counting on the solidarity of the doctors of Porto Ricardo Jorge leaves for Lisbon where he is appointed Inspector-General of the United Kingdom’s Health Services, hygiene lens at the Lisbon Medical-Surgical School and member of the Higher Council for Hygiene and Health .

In 1899 he created that of the Directorate-General for Health and Public Benefit and the Central Hygiene Institute, later Instituto Superior de Higiene (which today bears his name).

We can say that Ricardo Jorge at the end of the 19th century gave rise to a deep reform in public health in Portugal, in all aspects that are within his reach (academic, legislative and research)

The political instability of the First Republic did not allow the development envisioned by Ricardo Jorge and it was only during the Estado Novo with Marcelo Caetano as President of the Council of Ministers that a new impetus to health issues was given, the health model presented by Baltazar Rebelo de Sousa and Gonçalves Ferreira, key to the creation of the future National Health System.

An interesting curiosity was the fact that he banned coca-cola in Portugal (in 1927 as Director-General of Health), as reported after taking notice of the advertising slogan created by Fernando Pessoa “First you get strange, then you get involved”. It was only in 1977 that this ban was lifted.

He was active until almost the end of his life, intervening and participating in a meeting of the International Hygiene Office three months before he died in Lisbon, on July 29, 1939.

The day the king visited Porto
21 September, 2020 / , , ,

In November and December 1908 D. Manuel II, who would become the last king of Portugal, made a long journey to the north of the country and spent several days in Oporto.

On one of these days, and after his mother, Queen Amélia, having shopped in a large store in the city, the people gathered at Campo da Regeneração (currently Praça da República) for a military parade.

The newspapers of the time headlined that many people went up to the rooftops to watch the parade, however, cars, trams that headed to the place had to turn back due to the concentration of people.

The Royal cortege toured several streets of the Baixa and on Rua de Santa Catarina, they were received with a shower of flowers. At the end of the day a gala dinner was held at Palácio dos Carrancas.
Dona Amelia had a full day, having visited the atelier of the sculptor Teixeira Lopes.
After having traveled several localities of the north, D. Manuel II returned to Oporto, having participated in a soirée at Ateneu Comercial of Porto.
In another tribute to the king, the baths of Praia do Ourigo were named after the King. In October of 1910 the Republic was implanted and the designation was forever forgotten.

SOURCE: The Tripeiro 7th grade Year XVI Number 1
and 2 February 1997

Spoon fountain
18 September, 2020 / ,

It will be one of the oldest fountains in the city. Not this one that we can see today at the bottom of Monte dos Judeus stairs, and should go back to the middle of the 19th century, but its predecessor, installed in the 13th century still on Miragaia beach, for community use.

The name “spoon” will come from the tax that had to be paid for the entry of products into the city (measured on a spoon); or according to other versions, by the spoon (wooden or metal) with which the water was given to drink. But the current fountain remains a relic, with its granite structure and strangely finished off with the balcony of a house. It is classified as a public interest property, but deserved better visibility.

Its water was once considered “the best in quality that the city had”. We can access the antiquity of this fountain by reading the legend, now almost imperceptible, that was engraved on the headstone “Praise the Most Holy Sacrament and the Most Holy Conception of the Virgin Our Lady, conceived without original sin. 1629. The water from this fountain is from the city

Source: O Tripeiro 7th series Year XXXVII Number 3 March 2018

Writers’ route through Porto ( Almeida Garret )
17 September, 2020 / ,

Literary Tourism offers cultural capital because it gives readers the possibility to visit and discover places that are related, inspired, and places that have marked the lives of writers and their assets.

The difficulty in discovering these places shows that there is a lot of work to do in the preservation and dissemination of this heritage. Some of the houses mentioned have an information board, but they are not considered cultural heritage, nor is there a survey, of all the houses that exist.

This type of tourism establishes strong relationships between tourists and their destinations, creative, affective and social relationships.

Porto can thus stand out and differentiate itself as a destination rich in cultural heritage, with history and renowned writers.

ALMEIDA GARRET

He was born in 1799 in Porto, at Rua Dr. Barbosa de Castro near Jardins da Cordoaria, in house no. 37-41, and lived there until the age of five, later moving to Vila Nova de Gaia.

In the middle of the first floor of the house, with 18th century characteristics, in an oval medallion in plaster, placed by the city hall in 1864, an inscription honors the memory of the author of “Viagens na Minha Terra”.

There are writer’s marks all over the city:

– Church of Santo Ildefonso, where Garrett was baptized in 1799;
– building of Colégio de S. Lourenço / Igreja dos Grilos na Sé, and improvised military regiment, where he took refuge during the siege of Porto, in 1832, and where he started the novel “O Arco de Sant ‘Ana: Porto chronicle”;

– Almeida Garret Square next to S. Bento station;

– He was one of the responsible for introducing the heart of D. Pedro in the coat of arms of the city of Porto;
– grave in his honor at the Lapa cemetery, although his remains are found in the Jerónimos Monastery, in Lisbon;

– since 1954, on the 1st centenary of his death, a bronze statue of him has a prominent place in front of the city hall of porto,

– in 2001, when Porto was European Capital of Culture, the Municipal Library in the gardens of the Palácio de Cristal was named Almeida Garret.

He is described as a petulant and vain dandy.

São Gonçalo de Amarante
16 December, 2019 / , ,

The Church, the Convent and the São Gonçalo Bridge, are the “ex libris” of the city of Amarante, inseparable from the figure that gives them the name. The myriad of legends and beliefs that gravitate around this place blur the reality at a crossroads of such cloudiness that throws us into the impossibility of accurately discerning where they end and the other begins. “Gonçalo was a saint, and an admirable saint, in the early age of a boy; holy and admirable in the second of the youth; holy, and admirable in the third of men; holy, and admirable in the quarter of old; and finally holy, and admirable, on the fifth after death ”(excerpt from a sermon by Father António Vieira in Brazil.

São Gonçalo de Amarante was born around 1190, in the parish of S. Salvador de Tagilde, in the municipality of Vizela, in a noble family (the Pereiras). Under the protection of the archbishop of the Archdiocese of Braga, Gonçalo attended ecclesiastical disciplines at the Cathedral School of the Archiepiscopal See, becoming ordained priest and appointed parish priest of the parish of S. Paio (or S. Pelagius) of Riba-Vizela. He first went on pilgrimage to Rome from where he went to Jerusalem, where he took 14 years, leaving the parishioners in the care of a nephew priest. Returning to Portugal, he is chased away by the same that through a plot would have been named like parish priest. Resigned, he leaves S. Paio de Riba-Vizela, joins the conventual life of the Order of Preachers, recently founded by S. Domingos, building a small chapel dedicated to Our Lady of the Assumption, on the banks of the River Tâmega. where today stands the São Gonçalo Church and Convent in Amarante. The process of beatification was promulgated on September 16, 1561. Devotion to the most popular saint of the Portuguese saints, after Saint Anthony of Lisbon, spread throughout Portugal and Brazil. In 1540 John III of Portugal and D. Catarina of Austria decided to build a new Dominican temple and convent on the site, under the invocation of Gonçalo de Amarante. The works began in 1543, extending to the eighteenth century, with interventions in the twentieth century.

São Gonçalo, in the sec. XIII, begins the construction of a crossing between the two banks (it is during this period that an immensity of legends appears). The bridge collapsed in the 18th century due to flooding and was later recovered. The famous defence of the Amarante Bridge took place in 1809 and was one of the most remarkable moments of the second French invasions. The heroic defence of the bridge, as the episode became known, came after French troops occupied the Church of São Gonçalo and were prevented from crossing the Tamega. More than 200 years have passed, but cannonball and musket marks still linger on the building’s facade.

The Eagle and the Lion
21 November, 2019 / , ,

A few years ago, walking along Avenida da Boavista accompanied by my two older nephews…

― Kids, who knows what is that up there?!

— It’s the Eagle and the Lion in Rotunda da Boavista (Boavista Roundabout)!

I smiled while thinking of how right – and also how wrong – the answer was.

The Monument to the Heroes of the Peninsular War was designed by architect Marques da Silva and sculptor Alves de Sousa. Its construction, under the responsibility of the Cooperativa dos Pedreiros, began in 1909, but the monument was only to be inaugurated in 1952, after the premature death of Alves de Sousa, so its completion was the responsibility of sculptors Henrique Moreira and José Sousa Caldas.

The monument is intended to honour the heroes of the Peninsular War, fought in the context of the French invasions, which opposed Portugal – helped by their ally England – to the French armies of Napoleon Bonaparte, in the period from 1808 to 1814.

My nephews didn’t know this part, but as their tender age did not recommend “wars”, I ended up explaining to them that there was a bit of a bad Frenchman who wanted only cheese to be eaten in Portugal! So, we asked our English friends for help and sent the French “to hell” with their cheese! At the time, I couldn’t think of any better nonsense explanation, but they retained the correct basic idea. I hope…

Composed of a pedestal 45 metres high and surrounded by sculptural groups that represent artillery scenes, the monument features a woman – Vitória – in front of the people, holding the national flag in her left hand and a sword in her right hand. At the top, a high column topped by a lion (symbol of the flag of England) over an eagle (symbol of Napoleon’s empire), elements that gave it the popular name for which it is known.